Letters in High Energy Physics http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP <p style="padding: 10px; border: 1px solid #ff0000;"><strong>The journal is now published by Auricle Global Society of Education and Research.</strong> <br><strong>The new web URL for journal is:</strong> <a href="https://lettersinhighenergyphysics.com/index.php/LHEP">https://lettersinhighenergyphysics.com/index.php/LHEP</a></p> Andromeda Publishing And Academic Services LTD en-US Letters in High Energy Physics 2632-2714 <p align="justify">Letters in High Energy Physics (LHEP) is an open access journal published by Andromeda Publishing and Education Services. The articles in LHEP are distributed according to the terms of <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">the creative commons license CC-BY 4.0</a>. Under the terms of this license, copyright is retained by the author while use, distribution and reproduction in any medium are permitted provided proper credit is given to original authors and sources.</p> <h2 style="margin-bottom: 0px; margin-top: 0px;">Terms of Submission</h2> <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;" align="justify">By submitting an article for publication in LHEP, the submitting author asserts that:</p> <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;" align="justify">1. The article presents original contributions by the author(s) which have not been published previously in a peer-reviewed medium and are not subject to copyright protection.</p> <p style="margin-top: 0px; margin-bottom: 0px;" align="justify">2. The co-authors of the article, if any, as well as any institution whose approval is required, agree to the publication of the article in LHEP.</p> Physical States and Correction Terms of the Supersymmetric c = 1 Model http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/536 <p>In this article, we investigate the supersymmetric c = 1 model of superstring theory and demonstrate<br>how the spectrum of states is expanded and new symmetries of the theory are generated by the existence<br>of ghost cohomologies. As a result, we establish significant connections between two-dimensional supergravity<br>and physical theories in higher dimensions. Additionally, we provide a comprehensive guide for<br>constructing BRST-invariant and nontrivial vertex operators and carry out explicit computations to determine<br>the correction terms needed to maintain the BRST invariance of the corresponding currents.</p> Omar El Deeb ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 10.31526/lhep.2024.536 Lepton Masses and Mixing in Modular A5 Symmetry http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/545 <p>A model based on the modular group A5 is considered to account for lepton masses and mixing. We con-<br>sider multimoduli scenario, in which charged leptons and neutrinos are assigned to different moduli. Var-<br>ious models are considered depending on different assignments of modular weights and the mechanis for producing the light neutrino masses.</p> Mohammed Ahmed Abbas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-29 2024-04-29 10.31526/lhep.2024.545 New Parameterization and Analysis for E6 Inspired 331 Model http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/481 <p>We present a new parameterization for SU(3)C × SU(3)L × U(1)X extension of the Standard Model, which is inspired by E6 symmetry. The new setup predicts all Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing angles and quark masses, a total of nine observable variables, within 1–3 standard deviations of the experimental values with a minimum number of input parameters. A detailed numerical analysis and correlations between input parameters and predicted quantities are presented. The best global fit benchmark point corresponds to χ 2 ≈ 0.7 with ∀σ &lt; 0.6. The advantages of the new parameterization and future prospects are discussed as well.</p> Oleg Popov Rena Ciftci Abbas Kenan Ciftci ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-05 2024-05-05 10.31526/lhep.2024.481 Entanglement Entropy Distributions of a Muon Decay http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/531 <p><span class="fontstyle0">Divergences that occur in density matrices of decay and scattering processes are shown to be regularized<br>by tracing and unitarity or the optical theorem. These divergences are regularized by the lifetime of the decaying particle or the total scattering cross section. Also, these regularizations are shown to give the<br>expected helicities of final particles. As an illustration, the density matrix is derived for the weak decay of a<br>polarized muon at rest, </span><span class="fontstyle2">µ<span class="fontstyle0">¯</span></span><span class="fontstyle3">→ </span><span class="fontstyle2">ν</span><span class="fontstyle2">µ</span><span class="fontstyle4">(</span><span class="fontstyle5">e<span class="fontstyle0">¯</span></span><span class="fontstyle2">ν</span><span class="fontstyle0">¯</span><sub><span class="fontstyle5">e</span></sub><span class="fontstyle4">)</span><span class="fontstyle0">, with Lorentz invariant density matrix entries and unitarity upheld<br>at tree level. The electron’s von Neumann entanglement entropy distributions are derived with respect<br>to both the electron’s emission angle and energy. The angular entropy distribution peaks for an electron<br>emitted backward with respect to the muon’s polarization given a minimum volume regularization larger<br>than the cube of the muon’s Compton wavelength. The kinematic entropy distribution is maximal at half<br>the muon’s rest mass energy. These results are similar to the electron’s angular and kinematic decay rate<br>distributions. Both the density matrix and entanglement entropy can be cast in terms of either ratios of<br>areas or volumes.</span></p> Shanmuka Shivashankara Nicole Cafe Patti Rizzo ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-06-08 2024-06-08 10.31526/lhep.2024.531 Hot versus Cold Hidden Sectors and Their Effects on Thermal Relics http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/502 <p>A variety of possibilities exist for dark matter aside from WIMPS, such as hidden sector dark matter. We<br>discuss the synchronous thermal evolution of visible and hidden sectors and show that the density of<br>thermal relics can change O(100%) and ∆Neff by a factor of up to 105 depending on whether the hidden<br>sector was hot or cold at the reheat temperature. It is also shown that the approximation of using separate<br>entropy conservation for the visible and hidden sectors is invalid even for a very feeble coupling between<br>the two.</p> Pran Nath Jinzheng Li ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-04 2024-02-04 10.31526/lhep.2024.502 Dark Matter and Muon (g − 2) from a Discrete Z4 Symmetric Model http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/512 <p>The nonzero neutrino mass and nature of Dark Matter (DM) is still unknown within the Standard Model<br>(SM). In 2021, there was a 4.2σ discrepancy with SM results in the measurement of muon magnetic moment<br>reported by Fermilab. Recently, Fermilab released its precise results for muon’s magnetic moment, and it<br>shows a 5.1σ discrepancy. In this work, we study the corelation between neutrino masses, muon (g − 2)<br>anomaly, and Dark Matter within a framework based on the Z4 extension of the scotogenic model, in which<br>the neutrino masses are generated at one loop level. We extend the model with a vector-like lepton (VLL)<br>triplet in order to explain muon (g − 2). Here, the coupling of VLL triplet ψT to inert doublet η provides a<br>positive contribution to muon anomalous magnetic moment. We also studied the DM phenomenology of<br>ψT by considering the neutral component of ψT as the lightest DM candidate. We show that, for the mass of<br>the VLL triplet Mψ in TeV scale, the model can well explain muon (g − 2) anomaly and also gives required<br>relic density.</p> Simran Arora Bhag Chand Chauhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-04 2024-02-04 10.31526/lhep.2024.512 New Results on 0νββ Decay from the CUORE Experiment http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/516 <pre>The Cryogenic Underground Observatory for Rare Events (CUORE) is the first bolometric experiment<br>searching for neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) that has successfully reached the tonne mass scale.<br>The detector, located at the LNGS in Italy, consists of an array of 988 TeO2 crystals arranged in a compact<br>cylindrical structure of 19 towers. CUORE began its first physics data run in 2017 at a base temperature of<br>about 10 mK and has been collecting data continuously since 2019, reaching a TeO2 exposure of 2 tonne-<br>year in spring 2023. This is the largest amount of data ever acquired with a solid-state cryogenic detector,<br>which allows for a significant improvement in the sensitivity to 0νββ decay in 130Te. In this article, we<br>present the analysis of new CUORE data, corresponding to ∼1 tonne · yr TeO2 exposure. This analysis<br>relies on significant enhancements to the data processing chain and high-level analysis. Combining the new<br>data with the former data release, we find no evidence for 0νββ decay and set a preliminary 90% credibility<br>interval Bayesian lower limit of 3.3 · 1025 yr on the 130Te half-life for this process. In the hypothesis that 0νββ<br>decay is mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, this results in an upper limit on the effective Majorana mass<br>of 75–255 meV, depending on the nuclear matrix element used.</pre> Alice Campani ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 10.31526/lhep.2024.516 Search for Leptonic CP Violation with the ESSnuSBplus Project http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/517 <p>ESSνSB is a design study for a next-generation long-baseline neutrino experiment that aims at the precise<br>measurement of the CP-violating phase, δCP, in the leptonic sector at the second oscillation maximum. The<br>conceptual design report published from the first phase of the project showed that after 10 years of data<br>taking, more than 70% of the possible δCP range will be covered with 5σ C.L. to reject the no-CP-violation<br>hypothesis. The expected value of δCP precision is smaller than 8◦ for all δCP values. The next phase of the<br>project, the ESSνSB+, aims at using the intense muon flux produced together with neutrinos to measure<br>the neutrino-nucleus cross-section, the dominant term of the systematic uncertainty, in the energy range<br>of 0.2–0.6 GeV, using a Low Energy neutrinos from STORed Muons (LEnuSTORM) and a Low Energy<br>Monitored Neutrino Beam (LEMNB) facilities.</p> Tamer Tolba Jorge Aguilar Ye Zou ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-03-25 2024-03-25 10.31526/lhep.2024.517 Charged Higgs Decay to W± and Heavy Neutral Higgs Decaying into τ+τ− in Georgi-Machacek Model at LHC http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/518 <p>The CMS collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) searched for a charged Higgs boson, in the mass range of 300 to 700 GeV, decaying into aW± boson and a heavy neutral Higgs boson of mass 200 GeV, which successively decays into a pair of tau leptons, in proton-proton collisions at √ s = 13 TeV. In this letter, focusing on the Georgi-Machacek (GM) model, I discuss the parameter space, allowed by the theoretical and experimental constraints, for which the limits on this process obtained by the CMS can be accommodated.<br>The study in this letter also shows that, for the choice of the parameters, the decay of the charged Higgs boson H± 3 toW± and a heavy neutral Higgs boson H is preferred over the decay to any gauge boson and any other neutral or charged Higgs bosons. I also present the values of production cross-section times branching ratio for the decay of H to a pair of b-quarks at √s = 14 TeV.</p> Swagata Ghosh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-21 2024-04-21 10.31526/lhep.2024.518 Composite Effective Field Theory Signal from Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings for ZZ(→ ℓℓνν)jj and Zγ(→ ννγ)jj Productions http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/519 <p>Parameterization of heavy effects beyond the Standard Model is available using higher-dimension operators<br>of the effective field theory and their Wilson coefficients, where their values are not known. Experimental<br>sensitivity to the Wilson coefficients can be significantly changed in case of the usage of composite<br>anomalous signal, which contains anomalous contributions from background processes in addition to the<br>conventional ones from the signal process. In this work, this approach is applied to the search for anomalous<br>quartic gauge couplings with seven EFT operators in the electroweak production of ZZ(→ ℓℓνν)jj and<br>Zγ(→ ννγ)jj in pp collisions. For the majority of coefficients, sensitivity in the former channel is smaller<br>than that in the latter one. However, it is shown, that composite anomalous signal affects ZZ(→ ℓℓνν)jj<br>production stronger than Zγ(→ ννγ)jj production, making sensitivities closer. One-dimensional limits on<br>theWilson coefficients are changed up to 27.3% and 9.7% due to the background anomalous contributions<br>in ZZ(→ ℓℓνν)jj and Zγ(→ ννγ)jj productions, respectively.</p> Artur E. Semushin Evgeny Yu. Soldatov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 10.31526/lhep.2024.519 A New 700GeV Scalar in the LHC Data? http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/515 <p>As an alternative to the metastability of the electroweak vacuum, resulting from perturbative calculations,<br>one can consider a nonperturbative effective potential which, as at the beginning of the Standard Model,<br>is restricted to the pure Φ4 sector yet consistent with the known analytical and numerical studies. In this<br>approach, where the electroweak vacuum is now the lowest-energy state, besides the resonance of mass<br>mh = 125 GeV defined by the quadratic shape of the potential at its minimum, the Higgs field should<br>exhibit a second resonance with mass (MH)Theor = 690 (30) GeV associated with the zero-point energy<br>determining the potential depth. In spite of its large mass, this resonance would couple to longitudinal<br>Ws with the same typical strength as the low-mass state at 125 GeV and represent a relatively narrow<br>resonance, mainly produced at LHC by gluon-gluon fusion. In this paper, we review LHC data suggesting<br>a new resonance of mass (MH)EXP ∼ 682 (10) GeV, with a statistical significance that is far from negligible.</p> George Rupp Maurizio Consoli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 10.31526/lhep.2024.515 Representation of Fermions in the Pati-Salam Model http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/520 <p>In this paper, a representation of fermions in the Pati-Salam model is suggested. The semileptonic and beyond<br>standard model flavor changing neutral currents of the Lagrangian in this representation of fermions<br>are discussed. A pair of possible Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa and Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata<br>matrices are defined. An effective Lagrangian for this model is given.</p> Desheng LI Hong-Fei Zhang ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-04-23 2024-04-23 10.31526/lhep.2024.520 A Particle Physics Model without Higgs http://journals.andromedapublisher.com/index.php/LHEP/article/view/508 <p>In this work, we describe the construction of a particle physics model where chiral symmetry, broken at the<br>UV scale by “irrelevant” d &gt; 4 operators, is recovered at low energy. In the critical, chiral symmetric theory,<br>masses of elementary degrees of freedom are generated by a peculiar nonperturbative field-theoretical<br>mechanism and not as in the Higgs scenario. Consistency of mass formulae with phenomenology requires<br>the existence of a new sector of superstrongly interacting particles (denoted by Tera-particles), gauge invariantly<br>coupled to Standard Model matter, living at an energy scale, ΛT, of the order of a few TeVs.<br>We give the expression of the full Lagrangian of a model encompassing quarks, Tera-quarks and W, as<br>well as leptons, Tera-leptons, and B gauge bosons when, besides strong, there are Tera-strong and weak<br>interactions, and also hypercharge is included.We prove that, upon integrating out the (heavy) Tera-DoFs,<br>the resulting low-energy effective Lagrangian of the critical model essentially coincides with the Standard<br>Model Lagrangian. This implies that the present model passes all the precision tests that the Standard<br>Model is able to pass. There are a number of good reasons for considering speculative and unorthodox<br>theories of this kind. First of all, unlike the Standard Model, in this scenario masses are not free parameters<br>but are determined by the dynamics of the theory. Secondly, we have a physical understanding of the origin<br>of the electroweak scale as the scale of a new interaction. Thirdly, we envisage a solution to the strong<br>CP problem, and last but not least, the Higgs mass tuning problem does not even arise because there is no<br>fundamental Higgs.</p> Giancarlo Rossi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 10.31526/lhep.2024.508