Mapping Water on the Moon and Mars Using a Muon Tomography

  • Olin Lyod Pinto National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn 12618, Estonia; GSCAN O ¨U, Maealuse2/1, Tallinn 12618, Estonia
  • Jörg Miikael Tiit GSCANOU, Maealuse2/1, Tallinn 12618, Estonia; STACCOU, Narva mnt 20, Tartu 51009, Estonia
Keywords: muon tomography, machine learning, monte carlo simulations, GEANT4


The search for water on the Lunar and Martian surfaces is a fundamental aspect of space exploration, con-
tributing to the understanding of the history and evolution of these celestial bodies. However, the current
understanding of the distribution, concentration, origin, and migration of water on these surfaces is lim-
ited. Moreover, there is a need for more detailed data on these aspects of Lunar and Martian water. The
natural flux of cosmic-ray muons, capable of penetrating the planetary surface, offers a method to study
the water-ice content, composition, and density of these surfaces. In this paper, the author presents a novel
approach to address these knowledge gaps by employing cosmic-ray muon detectors and backscattered
radiation. The study describes a cutting-edge muon tracking system developed by GScan and highlights
the results of preliminary simulations conducted using GEANT4. These findings suggest that muon to-
mography could be a potential tool for investigating water-ice content on the Lunar and Martian surfaces,
pointing to new avenues for space science exploration.

How to Cite
O. Pinto and J. M. Tiit, “Mapping Water on the Moon and Mars Using a Muon Tomography”, Journal of Advanced Instrumentation in Science, vol. 2024, no. 1, Mar. 2024.
International Workshop on Cosmic-Ray Muography (Muography2023), Naples, Italy